I love to share my thoughts with others and enjoy seeing the potential effect it may create in their lives.
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If an artist can translate the meaning and purpose of a work into easily understandable words, it means one of two things. Either the artist is lying, in order to ease the way with patrons and funders; or the artist is a fool.
And if dishonesty is the reason, that too is something that vitiates art. No serious art is easy to interpret. Nor is there ever a single valid interpretation of art. If art is good, there are many things to be said about it and much that will remain unsayable.
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The mechanism underlying the understanding of signs and symbols represents one of the most exciting topics of current neuroscience research. Most researchers attribute the binding between a sign and its meaning to a “binding area” or “semantic centre” in the cortex. However, opinions differ widely as the where this area is localised and imaging results indicate activation of a wide range of cortical areas during semantic tasks. Moreover, patients with lesions in various brain areas show semantic deficits, for example in processing specific semantic classes of words. Should the concept of a mechanism for meaning therefore be abandoned?
A solution lies in the nature of meaning itself. For a long time, philosophers have tried to define what “meaning” might be, or what the word “meaning” means. The result of this work is that a range of different kinds of meaning exist and, correspondingly, there are a range of word kinds with different meaning characteristics. Traditionally, the meaning of a word is seen as the object it relates to, but other words obviously relate to actions and it is feasible that the different kinds of words call upon different brain areas.
A model of category-specific semantic processing will be highlighted along with some empirical evidence supporting it. The neuroscience results will also be related to their philosophical roots and the implications of neuroscience research for more general questions about language and thought may be touched upon in closing.
Meaning is a notion in semantics classically defined as having two components:
- Reference, anything in the referential real denoted by a word or expression…
- Sense, the system of paradigmatic and syntagmatic relationships between a lexical unit and other lexical units in a language.
This is a most necessary question, since all reasoning is an interpretation of signs of some kind. But it is also a very difficult question, calling for deep reflection.
It is necessary to recognise three different states of mind. First, imagine a person in a dreamy state. Let us suppose he is thinking of nothing but a red colour. Not thinking about it, either, that is, not asking nor answering any questions about it, not even saying to himself that it pleases him, but just contemplating it, as his fancy brings it up. Perhaps, when he gets tired of the red, he will change it to some other colour, – say a turquoise blue, – or a rose-colour; – but if he does so, it will be in the play of fancy without any reason and without any compulsion. This is about as near as may be to a state of mind in which something is present, without compulsion and without reason; it is called Feeling. Except in a half-waking hour, nobody really is in a state of feeling, pure and simple. But whenever we are awake, something is present to the mind, and what is present, without reference to any compulsion or reason, is feeling.
Second, imagine our dreamer suddenly to hear a loud and prolonged steam whistle. At the instant it begins, he is startled. He instinctively tries to get away; his hands go to his ears. It is not so much that it is unpleasing, but it forces itself so upon him. The instinctive resistance is a necessary part of it: the man would not be sensible his will was borne down, if he had no self-assertion to be borne down. It is the same when we exert ourselves against outer resistance; except for that resistance we should not have anything upon which to exercise strength. This sense of acting and of being acted upon, which is our sense of the reality of things, – both of outward things and of ourselves, – may be called the sense of Reaction. It does not reside in any one Feeling; it comes upon the breaking of one feeling by another feeling. It essentially involves two things acting upon one another.
Third, let us imagine that our now-awakened dreamer, unable to shut out the piercing sound, jumps up and seeks to make his escape by the door, which we will suppose had been blown to with a bang just as the whistle commenced. But the instant our man opens the door let us say the whistle ceases. Much relieved, he thinks he will return to his seat, and so shuts the door, again. No sooner, however, has he done so than the whistle recommences. He asks himself whether the shutting of the door had anything to do with it; and once more opens the mysterious portal. As he opens it, the sound ceases. He is now in a third state of mind: he is Thinking. That is, he is aware of learning, or of going through a process by which a phenomenon is found to be governed by a rule, or has a general knowable way of behaving. He finds that one action is the means, or middle, for bringing about another result. This third state of mind is entirely different from the other two. In the second there was only a sense of brute force; now there is a sense of government by a general rule. In Reaction only two things are involved; but in government there is a third thing which is a means to an end. The very word means signifies something which is in the middle between two others. Moreover, this third state of mind, or Thought, is a sense of learning, and learning is the means by which we pass from ignorance to knowledge. As the most rudimentary sense of Reaction involves two states of Feeling, so it will be found that the most rudimentary Thought involves three states of Feeling.
- Intentando hablar del inconsciente con un tipo de lenguaje que sea el lenguaje que habla el inconsciente.
Are we – and all living beings – just «survival machines, blindly programmed to preserve the selfish molecules known as genes», as Richard Dawkins states? Are we incapable of knowing beyond the frames imposed to us by nature?Is there any significance for life in a Universe of billions of stars that ignore us? Is there any significance for life in an Universe whose dimensions and nature overcome our understanding?
«When I consider the short duration of my life, swallowed up in the eternity that lies before and after it, when I consider the little space I fill and I see, engulfed in the infinite immensity of spaces of which I am ignorant, and which know me not, I rest frightened, and astonished, for there is no reason why I should be here rather than there. Why now rather than then? Who has put me here? By whose order and direction have this place and time have been ascribed to me?»
As intellectual development takes place, as we grow up, the sense-domain is invaded by the intellect and the naivete of sense-experience is lost. When we smile, it is not just smiling: something more is added. We do not eat as we did in our infancy; eating is mixed with intellection. And as we all realize this invasion by the intellect, or the mixing with intellect, simple biological deeds are contaminated by egocentric interest. This means that there is now an intruder into the unconscious which can no longer directly or immediately move into the field of consciousness, and all deeds that have been relegated to biologically instinctual functions now assume the role of consciously and intellectually directed acts. This transformation is known as the loss of ‘innocence’ or the acquirement of ‘knowledge’ in the usage of the Biblical myth.”
Best comments ever: wow -this is great again!!, nice, Beautiful!, Nice!! luv it, GREAT!, Details makes difference. Congrats! , awesome,You’re really good with vector!! well done! , This work is very metaphysical my friend. Practise meditation and you’re vision would be insane., It’s hard to take in all the detail… Wow ,Sorprendendes detalles muy buen trabajo felicidades camarada… wow , wow esta increibl!! buen trabajo … WOW…
Top comments of the week:—-Потрясающе! Congratulations , very good work,good stuff! I love the 3 dimensional quality of your work…such a unique style! I am also based in the bay area. amazing! WOW PERFECT ! это отличн, оvery cool! Fantastic….really! beautiful,one of the best sketchbook spreads I ever seen…BLA,BLA,BLA,BLA….
…para se ser bom nao e nescessario comprar likes numa rede social de Internet… um bom artista e bom pelo seu talento e capacidade e nao por maiorias ou menorias ou ate mesmo por 100 ou 200 Euros porque isso e o valor de um chupa chupa ou um gelado barato de agua acucarada na praia… nao te preocupes porque o teu futuro e muito mais do que tudo isso… tens fans que te querm com o curacao e acreditam no teu talento pelo valor que tem o qual utrapassa certas coisas que um adulto consegue entender… um abraco de muita forca e coragem para ti nunca deixes de acreditar…
“Because sociology focuses on all the characteristics of a human society, it has considerable overlap with other disciplines. Four closely related fields in the social sciences are anthropology, criminology, demography, and social psychology. Anthropology comes from the Greek and means the ‘study of humans.’ It is often subdivided into cultural anthropology and physical anthropology. Cultural anthropology is concerned with the growth of human society -group behavior, the origins of religions, social customs and conventions, technical developments, and family relationships. Physical anthropology deals with the biological aspects of humans – racial differences, human origins, and evolution. The goals of anthropologists are much the same as those of sociologists, but the means they use are different. Anthropology in its study of modern cultures uses direct observation of human beings, their activities, and their products. The study of past societies is dependent on the work of archaeologists because it needs artifacts – pottery, weapons, fabrics, and other objects – as well as skeletal remains of the people as evidence for its findings. Some anthropologists study surviving preliterate societies… Social psychology is the scientific study of individual behavior in a social and cultural setting. Its concern is the effect of society on the personality, motivations, and attitudes of the individual. Social psychologists seek to answer such questions as: How are children affected when both parents work? What is the impact of the assembly line on the mental and emotional makeup of industrial workers? What effects do mass media have on political and social attitudes?”
RACISM is the sistem of ignorance, exploitation, and power used to oppress African-Americans, Latinos, Asians, Pacific-Americans, Native A mericans and other people on the basics of ethnicity,culture, mannerisms and colour…. And finally, what do we need to do not just see beyond our differences, but to realize our commonalties and deepen one another”s efforts to seize our full freedom and transform the nature of society….
What parallels can be draw between sexism,racism, and other type of intelerance, such as anti-Semitism, Anti-Arabian,homophobia, and handicappism?What kinds of national and international strategies are needed for a multicultural democracy in the whole of American society and throughout the western world?
RACISM & STERIOTYPES
…What is racism? How does the system of racial discrimination that people of colour experience todaydiffer from the type of discrimination that existed in the period of Jim Crow, or legal racoal segregation? How is the rich spectrum of cultural groups affected by practices of discrimination within American’s so-called “democratic society”today?
Humor · Music · Photography · Movies · Bizarre/Oddities · Arts · Food/Cooking · Animals · Internet · Travel · Psychology · Mythology · Online Games · Health · Philosophy · Graphic Design · Books · Gadgets · Self Improvement · Drawing · Cartoons · Science · Clothing · Shopping · Computers · Writing · History · Astronomy · Environment · Comedy Movies…
BE YOU DESIGN: The idea of this project is to observe and analyze beauty in the environment in which we live. In this way I intend to find differences and similarities between cultures, races, ages and social states. I’m working on this project by the Univers..
- Be always crazy, unique, different, good, be always ‘YOU’ new project under construction:
“The paradox of desire is that it posits retroactively its own cause, the object a is an object that can be perceived only by a gaze “distorted” by desire, an object that does not exist for an “objective” gaze. In other words, the object a is always, by definition, perceived in a distorted way, because outside this distortion, “in itself,” it does…
According to Freud, the Superego develops by the age of five, completing the basic three factors determining a balanced personality. The Superego is what some people would call the conscience, since it helps to dictate our sense of right and wrong. Moral and ethical lessons taught by our parents and other caregivers really take hold at this age, with children being able to internalise the messages, making them a part of the long term personality.
WHAT DOES MEAN…
– Self-concern –
Self-contained steam engine
(?)At its most basic, social control involves all of the things that we do – or have done to us – that are designed to maintain or change people’s behaviour.
The socialisation process, for example, involves social control because it represents an attempt by people to shape the way in which a child, for example, develops. When we develop certain values and adopt particular norms, this too is a form of social control since we are placing limits on what we consider to be acceptable or normal behaviour.
‘Self and Identity in Freud’s Vienna: Science, Ideology, and Cultural CrisisDuring the so-called Age of the Enlightenment, European thinkers believed that all humans possessed a unified, rational self that exerted firm control over the external world as well as on its own emotions. Liberal political theory was based on the notion of the rational subject and citizen, in control of himself and responsible for his actions. From the late nineteenth century, however, this model began to be criticized by scientists, cultural critics, politicians, and philosophers. This debate on the self became part of broader, political questions of identity concerning race, nationality, and gender. Was the Male Self different from the Female? Was the personal identity of a Jew different from that of an Aryan?
Phishing is a way of attempting to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords and credit card details by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. Communications purporting to be from popular social web sites, auction sites, online payment processors or IT administrators are commonly used to lure the unsuspecting public. Phishing is typically carried out by e-mail or instant messaging, and it often directs users to enter details at a fake website whose look and feel are almost identical to the legitimate one. Phishing is an example of social engineering techniques used to fool users, and exploits the poor usability of current web security technologies. Attempts to deal with the growing number of reported phishing incidents include legislation, user training, public awareness, and technical security measures.
’140.376, Fall 1995, Johns Hopkins University
Chandak Sengoopta, Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine’
Think about this words
… Challenge, communal memory, community, concrete self, cultural affiliation, cultural identity, Cultural memory, culture, disintegration, doubt, group, individual, irrational, language, Modernist view of self, monitor, objective, pastiche personality, personal heritage, perspective, Possession, rational, redistribution, relationship, self-knowledge, self-definition, self-identify, Self-monitoring, self-representation, social, social community, social construction, social control, Social environment, social possession, social relationship, social situation, threat… There is no self without relationships, therefore relationships are more important than the actual self. Without our social relationships we would have no language, and therefore no way in which to create self-knowledge and self-definition.
The social environment we live in as it relates to social saturation really consists of any visible/reachable community.
Erik Erikson was one of the earliest psychologists to be explicitly interested in identity. The Eriksonian framework rests upon a distinction among the psychological sense of continuity, known as the ego identity (sometimes identified simply as “the self”); the personal idiosyncrasies that separate one person from the next, known as the personal identity; and the collection of social roles that a person might play, known as either the social identity or the cultural identity. Erikson’s work, in the psychodynamic tradition, aimed to investigate the process of identity formation across a lifespan. Progressive strength in the ego identity, for example, can be charted in terms of a series of stages in which identity is formed in response to increasingly sophisticated challenges. On some readings of Erikson, the development of a strong ego identity, along with the proper integration into a stable society and culture, lead to a stronger sense of identity in general. Accordingly, a deficiency in either of these factors may increase the chance of an identity crisis or confusion (Cote & Levin 2002, p. 22).
Although the self is distinct from identity, the literature of self-psychology can offer some insight into how identity is maintained (Cote & Levin 2002, p. 24). From the vantage point of self-psychology, there are two areas of interest: the processes by which a self is formed (the “I”), and the actual content of the schemata which compose the self-concept (the “Me”). In the latter field, theorists have shown interest in relating the self-concept to self-esteem, the differences between complex and simple ways of organizing self-knowledge, and the links between those organizing principles and the processing of information (Cote & Levin 2002).
The “Neo-Eriksonian” identity status paradigm emerged in later years, driven largely by the work of James Marcia. This paradigm focuses upon the twin concepts of exploration and commitment. The central idea is that any individual’s sense of identity is determined in large part by the explorations and commitments that he or she makes regarding certain personal and social traits. It follows that the core of the research in this paradigm investigates the degrees to which a person has made certain explorations, and the degree to which he or she displays a commitment to those explorations.
A person may display either relative weakness or relative strength in terms of both exploration and commitments. When assigned categories, four possible permutations result: identity diffusion, identity foreclosure, identity moratorium, and identity achievement. Diffusion is when a person lacks both exploration in life and interest in committing even to those unchosen roles that he or she occupies. Foreclosure is when a person has not chosen extensively in the past, but seems willing to commit to some relevant values, goals, or roles in the future. Moratorium is when a person displays a kind of flightiness, ready to make choices but unable to commit to them. Finally, achievement is when a person makes identity choices and commits to them.
At a general level, self-psychology is compelled to investigate the question of how the personal self relates to the social environment. To the extent that these theories place themselves in the tradition of “psychological” social psychology, they focus on explaining an individual’s actions within a group in terms of mental events and states. However, some “sociological” social psychology theories go further by attempting to deal with the issue of identity at both the levels of individual cognition and of collective behavior.
The question of what psychological reasons drive the individual’s adoption of group identities remains open. Many people gain a sense of positive self-esteem from their identity groups, which furthers a sense of community and belonging. Another issue that researchers have attempted to address is the question of why people engage in discrimination, i.e., why they tend to favor those they consider a part of their “in-group” over those considered to be outsiders. Both questions have been given extensive treatment by Henri Tajfel and John C. Turner’s social identity theory. Their theory focuses mainly on the role of self-categorization and attempts to show how a simple sense of distinctiveness can lead people to act in a discriminating way. Moreover, social identity theory shows that merely crafting cognitive distinction between in- and out-groups can lead to subtle effects on people’s evaluations of others (Cote & Levine 2002).
Different social situations also compel people to attach themselves to different self-identities which may cause some to feel marginalized, thus traveling between different groups and self-identifications. These different selves lead to constructed images dichotomized between what people want to be (the ideal self) and how others see them (the limited self). Educational background and Occupational status and roles significantly influence identity formation in this regard.
Another issue of interest in social psychology is related to the notion that there are certain identity formation strategies which a person may use to adapt to the social world. (Cote & Levin 2002, p. 3–5) developed a typology which investigated the different manners of behavior that individuals may have. Their typology includes:
- Psychological symptoms
- Personality symptoms
- Social symptoms
Refuser Develops cognitive blocks that prevent adoption of adult role-schemas Engages in child-like behavior Shows extensive dependency upon others and no meaningful engagement with the community of adults.
Drifter Possesses greater psychological resources than the Refuser (i.e., intelligence, charisma) Is apathetic toward application of psychological resources Has no meaningful engagement with or commitment to adult communities.
Searcher Has a sense of dissatisfaction due to high personal and social expectations Shows disdain for imperfections within the community Interacts to some degree with role-models, but ultimately these relationships are abandoned.
Guardian Possesses clear personal values and attitudes, but also a deep fear of change.
Sense of personal identity is almost exhausted by sense of social identity Has an extremely rigid sense of social identity and strong identification with adult communities.
Resolver Consciously desires self-growth Accepts personal skills and competencies and uses them actively Is responsive to communities that provide opportunity for self-growth.
Kenneth Gergen formulated additional classifications, which include the strategic manipulator, the pastiche personality, and the relational self. The strategic manipulator is a person who begins to regard all senses of identity merely as role-playing exercises, and who gradually becomes alienated from his or her social “self”. The pastiche personality abandons all aspirations toward a true or “essential” identity, instead viewing social interactions as opportunities to play out, and hence become, the roles they play. Finally, the relational self is a perspective by which persons abandon all sense of exclusive self, and view all sense of identity in terms of social engagement with others. For Gergen, these strategies follow one another in phases, and they are linked to the increase in popularity of postmodern culture and the rise of telecommunications technology.
Anthropologists have most frequently employed the term ‘identity’ to refer to this idea of selfhood in a loosely Eriksonian way (Erikson 1972) properties based on the uniqueness and individuality which makes a person distinct from others. Identity became of more interest to anthropologists with the emergence of modern concerns with ethnicity and social movements in the 1970s. This was reinforced by an appreciation, following the trend in sociological thought, of the manner in which the individual is affected by and contributes to the overall social context. At the same time, the Eriksonian approach to identity remained in force, with the result that identity has continued until recently to be used in a largely socio-historical way to refer to qualities of sameness in relation to a person’s connection to others and to a particular group of people.
This ambiguous and confusing approach to identity has led on occasion to rather restrictive interpretations of the concept, following two more or less opposite tendencies. The first favours a primordialist approach which takes the sense of self and belonging to a collective group as a fixed thing, defined by objective criteria such as common ancestry and common biological characteristics. The second, rooted in social constructionist theory, takes the view that identity is formed by a predominantly political choice of certain characteristics. In so doing, it questions the idea that identity is a natural given, characterised by fixed, supposedly objective criteria. Both approaches need to be understood in their respective political and historical contexts, characterised by debate on issues of class, race and ethnicity. While they have been criticized, they continue to exert an influence on approaches to the conceptualisation of identity today.
These different explorations of ‘identity’ demonstrate how difficult a concept it is to pin down. Since identity is a virtual thing, it is impossible to define it empirically. Discussions of identity use the term with different meanings, from fundamental and abiding sameness, to fluidity, contingency, negotiated and so on. Brubaker and Cooper note a tendency in many scholars to confuse identity as a category of practice and as a category of analysis (Brubaker & Cooper 2000, p. 5). Indeed, many scholars demonstrate a tendency to follow their own preconceptions of identity, following more or less the frameworks listed above, rather than taking into account the mechanisms by which the concept is crystallised as reality. In this environment, some analysts, such as Brubaker and Cooper, have suggested doing away with the concept completely (Brubaker & Cooper 2000, p. 1). Others, by contrast, have sought to introduce alternative concepts in an attempt to capture the dynamic and fluid qualities of human social self-expression. Hall (1992, 1996), for example, suggests treating identity as a process, to take into account the reality of diverse and ever-changing social experience. Some scholars have introduced the idea of identification, whereby identity is perceived as made up of different components that are ‘identified’ and interpreted by individuals. The construction of an individual sense of self is achieved by personal choices regarding who and what to associate with. Such approaches are liberating in their recognition of the role of the individual in social interaction and the construction of identity.
Anthropologists have contributed to the debate by shifting the focus of research: One of the first challenges for the researcher wishing to carry out empirical research in this area is to identify an appropriate analytical tool. The concept of boundaries is useful here for demonstrating how identity works. In the same way as Barth, in his approach to ethnicity, advocated the critical focus for investigation as being “the ethnic boundary that defines the group rather than the cultural stuff that it encloses” (1969:15), social anthropologists such as Cohen and Bray have shifted the focus of analytical study from identity to the boundaries that are used for purposes of identification. If identity is a kind of virtual site in which the dynamic processes and markers used for identification are made apparent, boundaries provide the framework on which this virtual site is built. They concentrated on how the idea of community belonging is differently constructed by individual members and how individuals within the group conceive ethnic boundaries.
As a non-directive and flexible analytical tool, the concept of boundaries helps both to map and to define the changeability and mutability that are characteristic of people’s experiences of the self in society. While identity is a volatile, flexible and abstract ‘thing’, its manifestations and the ways in which it is exercised are often open to view. Identity is made evident through the use of markers such as language, dress, behaviour and choice of space, whose effect depends on their recognition by other social beings. Markers help to create the boundaries that define similarities or differences between the marker wearer and the marker perceivers, their effectiveness depends on a shared understanding of their meaning. In a social context, misunderstandings can arise due to a misinterpretation of the significance of specific markers. Equally, an individual can use markers of identity to exert influence on other people without necessarily fulfilling all the criteria that an external observer might typically associate with such an abstract identity.
Boundaries can be inclusive or exclusive depending on how they are perceived by other people. An exclusive boundary arises, for example, when a person adopts a marker that imposes restrictions on the behaviour of others. An inclusive boundary is created, by contrast, by the use of a marker with which other people are ready and able to associate. At the same time, however, an inclusive boundary will also impose restrictions on the people it has included by limiting their inclusion within other boundaries. An example of this is the use of a particular language by a newcomer in a room full of people speaking various languages. Some people may understand the language used by this person while others may not. Those who do not understand it might take the newcomer’s use of this particular language merely as a neutral sign of identity. But they might also perceive it as imposing an exclusive boundary that is meant to mark them off from her. On the other hand, those who do understand the newcomer’s language could take it as an inclusive boundary, through which the newcomer associates herself with them to the exclusion of the other people present. Equally, however, it is possible that people who do understand the newcomer but who also speak another language may not want to speak the newcomer’s language and so see her marker as an imposition and a negative boundary. It is possible that the newcomer is either aware or unaware of this, depending on whether she herself knows other languages or is conscious of the plurilingual quality of the people there and is respectful of it or not.
Philosophers have also reflected on the identity concept. In many ways Philosophical reflection on identity predated psychological. Philosophical discourse on identity begins with Descartes. His famous mantra “I doubt, therefor I think, therefor I am.” have left many to inquire what exactly “I” is, and if indeed we can derive an “I-ness” from doubt.
Hegel rejects Cartesian philosophy, supposing that we do not always doubt and that we do not always have consciousness. In his famous Master/Slave Dialectic Hegel attempts to show that the mind (Geist) only become conscious when it encounters another mind. One Geist attempts to control the other, since up until that point it has only encountered tools for its use. A struggle for domination ensues, leading to Lordship and Bondage.
Nietzsche who was influenced by Hegel in some ways but rejected him in others, called for a rejection of “Soul Atomism” in The Gay Science. Nietzsche supposed that the Soul was a interaction of forces, an ever-changing thing far from the immortal soul posited by both Descartes and the Christian tradition. His “Construction of the Soul” in many ways resembles modern Social Constructivism.
Martin Heidegger, following Nietzsche, did work on identity. For Heidegger, people only really form an identity after facing death. It’s death that allows people to choose from the social constructed meanings in their world, and assemble a finite identity out of seemingly infinite meanings. For Heidegger, most people never escape the “they”, a socially constructed identity of “how one ought to be” created mostly to try to escape death through ambiguity.
Many philosophical schools derive from rejecting Hegel, and do this diverse traditions of acceptance and rejection have developed.
Paul Ricoeur has introduced the distinction between the ipse identity (selfhood, ‘who am I?’) and the idem identity (sameness, or a third-person perspective which objectifies identity) (Ricoeur & Blamey 1995).
The implications are multiple as various research traditions are now heavily utilizing the lens of identity to examine phenomena. One implication of identity and identity construction can be seen in occupational settings. This becomes increasing challenging in stigmatized jobs or “dirty work”(Hughes, 1951).
In a recent article Tracy and Trethewey state that “individuals gravitate toward and turn away from particular jobs depending in part, on the extent to which they validate a “preferred organizational self” (Tracy & Tretheway 2005, p. 169). Some jobs carry different stigmas or acclaims. In her analysis Tracy uses the example of correctional officers trying to shake the stigma of the “glorified maids” (Tracy & Tretheway 2005). “The process by which people arrive at justifications of and values for various occupational choices.” Among these are workplace satisfaction and overall quality of life (Tracy & Scott 2006, p. 33). People in these types of jobs are forced to find ways in order to create an identity they can live with. “Crafting a positive sense of self at work is more challenging when one’s work is considered “dirty” by societal standards” (Tracy & Scott 2006, p. 7). “In other words, doing taint management is not just about allowing the employee to feel good in that job. “If employees must navigate discourses that question the viability of their work, and/ or experience obstacles in managing taint through transforming dirty work into a badge of honor, it is likely they will find blaming the client to be an efficacious route in affirming their identity”(Tracy & Scott 2006, p. 33).
In any case, the concept that an individual has a unique identity developed relatively late in history. Factors influencing the emphasis on personal identity may include:
* In the West, the Protestant stress on one’s responsibility for one’s own soul;
* Psychology itself, emerging as a distinct field of knowledge and speculation;
* The growth of a sense of privacy;
* Specialization of worker roles during the industrial period (as opposed, for example, to the undifferentiated roles of peasants in the feudal system);
* Occupation and employment’s effect on identity;
* Increased emphasis on gender identity, including gender identity disorder and transgender issues.
An important implication is related to identity change, i.e. the transformation of identity.
* Radical career change (Ibarra 2003)
* Gender identity transformation
* Identity formation
* Spoiled identity
* Social identity
* Online identity
* Identity politics
* International Identity Federation
* Species dysphoria
* Gender dysphoria
Intentando hablar del inconsciente con un tipo de lenguaje que sea el lenguaje que habla el inconsciente.
Tentando falar para o inconsciente com um tipo de linguagem a qual é a língua falada pelo inconsciente.
Der Versuch, dem Unbewussten mit einer Art Sprache, die Sprache des Unbewussten ist die Rede.
Snažím se mluvit bezvědomí s druhem jazyka, který je jazykem v bezvědomí.
Att försöka prata med det omedvetna med ett slags språk som är det språk som det omedvetna.
Faz poesia de tudo aquilo que vez com sentimento…
Költészet mindezt időt érzés …
الشعر يعني كل ذلك الوقت مع الشعور…
design / graphic / language / common / visual / think / make / form / word / people / time / communication / look / client / process / audience / part / important / ideas / write / colour / element / book / thought / idea / different / information / print / designer / create / space / communicate / sense / feel / project / real / set / simple / art / image / clear / big / style / approach / question / understand / see / order / cover / shape / good / layout / franca / solution / consider / lingua / law / try / piece / drawing / place / quite / show / build / level / system /coisas/pessoas/politica/illustration/ typography / vector / decorative / drawing/ floral / ornate / design / texture / experimental / branding/ sketches/ pattern/ editorial / hand-drawn / crests / textured/ packaging / personal-work/ advertising/illustration / typography / vector / decorative / drawing / floral / ornate/ design/ texture/ experimental / branding / sketches / pattern / editorial/ hand-drawn/ crests / textured/ packaging / personal-work/ advertising/ razao/ pessoas/ politica/ Homens/ Mulheres e criancas/ paz
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MAKING ART AND BEING AN ARTIST?
¿CUÁL ES LA DIFERENCIA ENTRE HACER EL ARTE Y LA SER UN ARTISTA?
QUAL E A DIFERENCA ENTRE FAZER ARTE E SER UM ARTISTA?
o conhecimento é a minha cocaina
Creativity has the power to transform human behavio rhttp://www.leoburnett.com/
Some people want to make the world a better place. I just wanna make the world a better-looking place. If you don’t like it, you can paint over it!
The trouble with being human these days
The idea of liquid modernity could be seen as Bauman’s attempt to resolve the tension that exists in much social theory between explaining social phenomena as aspects of modernity, and accounting for their appearance only recently. After all, the modern condition, with its overturning of tradition, has dominated the past two centuries. Liquid modernity seems perhaps to be the late realisation of a tendency that has characterised modernity from the start. What remains at issue is whether the ‘solid’ institutions of prior modernity were merely the residue of tradition, or pointed towards a more enduring potential of modernity itself. Most pertinently, is the rational self-determining subject of modernity any more than an illusion that has had its day?
Inevitably, the undermining of familiar institutions, an aspect of modernity that has certainly been intensified in recent years, has had important consequences for people’s sense of identity. There is nothing new about the observation that national and class-based identities (both of which had seemed almost definitively modern) have been upset by the end of the Cold War and various other developments discussed under the heading of ‘globalisation’. Similarly, Bauman notes that while the workplace was traditionally a very important source of personal identity, changes in the economy have rendered it far less reliable. He suggests that the enduring identities once associated with work have given way to looser and more provisional identities, and conceptions of community, that are subject to constant change and renegotiation. Indeed, Bauman points to a more profound transformation of how we understand what it means to be human in the absence of transcendent ideologies (traditional or otherwise) such as have characterised modernity until recently.
Enter the Grid. A higher level of understanding that surpasses conventional thinking. Undertaking one system is not enough. We all consist of perspectives. What works for me may not work for you and vice-versa. You may understand something that I cannot comprehend , yet it works great for you. Due to lack of understanding a concept or idea , who is to say this works and that does not? There lies the problem…
Style is the literary equivalent of the differences in appearances and character that distinguish one man from another. Style is partly an expression of the Designer personality, but it is also conditioned by historical influences, literary training and academic background – Style -Words – Language – Clear – Emotional – Meaning = Carlos Simpson
Una lengua vehicular o lengua franca (también en Italiano lingua franca) es el idioma adoptado para un entendimiento común entre personas que no tienen la misma lingua materna. La aceptación puede deberse a mutuo acuerdo o a cuestiones politicas, economicas etc.
Lengua franca (o lingua franca) es el idioma adoptado para un entendimiento común entre un grupo de varias coexistentes. La aceptación puede deberse por mutuo acuerdo o por cuestiones políticas, por ejemplo. En Europa durante una parte de la antigüedad se adoptaron como lenguas francas el griego y el latín. También han tenido esa característica el ruso en los países soviéticos; el alemán en el centro de Europa; el portugués y el español en sus respectivos imperios; el hindi en el subcontinente indio; el chino mandarín o el árabe. Actualmente, en ámbitos culturales, económicos y tecnológicos, se considera que la lingua franca o el lenguaje internacional es el inglés.force/strength/gallows/power/gibbet/might/steam/dint/vigor/pressure/potency/coachbox/gallowstree/violence/strain/hold/vitality/action/nerve/grasp/vim/vehemence